|Case studies focused on the CLAS Standards focus on cultural gaps in gender, age, health literacy, trust and other socio-ethnic barriers. Cases also cover intra-ethnic variations among patients and the need to avoid stereotyping in one's approach to care and treatment.|
|The following are chosen from the AETC-NMC collection of case studies and focus on scenarios involving concepts covered under the CLAS Standards:|
|Case Study 8||Tala is a 26 year old Filipino woman who got tested at a community based clinic after reading about the multicultural staff in a local newspaper. She reported that her husband has been seeing commercial sex workers for several years, has been in and out of drug treatment programs, and has been physically abusive toward her while intoxicated. Read more...|
|Case Study 9||
A middle-aged Chinese patient refused pain medication following cataract surgery. When asked, he replied his discomfort was bearable and he could survive without any medication. Later the nurse found him restless and uncomfortable. Again the nurse offered pain medication. Read more...
|Case Study 11||
Maria, a 42-year-old Latina, reported for the results of her HIV test a month after being tested. Maria is not fluent in English so she brought her two teenage sons, Miguel and Javier, to help translate for her. Read more...
|Case Study 16||
Gloria, a 39 year old monolingual Spanish speaking Latina woman was referred for HIV testing at your health center after she had contracted Chlamydia. Gloria previously explained to her health care provider that her only partner was her husband to whom she has been married to for the past 19 years. Read more...
|Case Study 18||
Anna is an 18-year-old Hispanic student who was infected with HIV four years ago during a sexual encounter with a 30-year-old man. She entered care in a pediatric HIV clinic two years ago when her diagnosis was confirmed after testing was recommended by a neighbor who was also a curandera. Read more...
|Case Study 19||
John is a 65-year-old white man who has sex with men and who presents with anal lesions and rectal bleeding. A blood test reveals that John is positive for HIV antibodies and has a CD4+ T cell count that is below 200 cells/mm3. An anal Pap smear is performed and shows squamous intraepithelial lesions. Read more...
|Case Study 20||
Sharon is a 31-year-old woman of Caribbean origin. She was diagnosed with HIV in 1994 and has adhered to her care recommendations only sporadically. She attended one clinic visit two years ago and one visit last year, prior to this pregnancy. She presents to the practice in her second trimester of pregnancy. Read more...
|Case Study 21||
John, an 18 year-old African American male, presents to his primary care physician (Dr. Beal) for enlarged lymph nodes. He reports swelling in his throat for the past two weeks and believes he is experiencing some continuing effects from a “really bad” case of the flu he had two weeks ago. Read more...
|Case Study 22||Jerome is a 30-year-old Hispanic man who has presented at his dentist’s office with a complaint of “a sore on the roof of my mouth.” Dr. Perez has been Jerome’s dentist for for the past four years. On initial examination, she sees a lesion on the hard palate that looks like a bruise the size of a pea. Read more...|
|Case Study 23||
Sarah is a 17-year-old African American female who was diagnosed with HIV six months ago and is currently two months pregnant. At this visit, Dr. Patel, who is of East Indian descent, wishes to discuss Sarah’s decision to give birth and when to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). Read more...
|Case Study 24||
Maria is a 32-year-old Hispanic woman who reports to a rural clinic for her HIV test results. Maria’s primary language is Spanish, and she does not speak or read English. During the initial appointment, Maria met with Melissa, an HIV counselor, and Ana, the only certified interpreter at the clinic. Read more...
|Case Study 28||
Archina, a 55-year-old East Indian woman, is brought to her OB/GYN appointment by her husband. Her native language is Hindi, but she speaks and understands English. She complains of vaginal irritation for the past three months and pain during sexual intercourse for one month. Read more...
|Case Study 30||Emma is a homeless 35 year-old African American mother of 4 children between the age of 4 - 10, diagnosed with HIV three months ago. Her HIV last test was five years ago, and she did not return for the results. Emma has a 15 year history of intravenous drug abuse. She stated that her last use of drugs was12 hours ago. Read more...|
|Case Study 39||
The Infectious Disease (ID) team is called to do a consult on the Pediatric floor for an 18 year old Latino male, Juan, who tested positive for HIV, 2 days after his 18th birthday. Juan was admitted to the hospital 3 days prior for a heroin overdose. Read more..
|Case Study 40||
Mary Smith is a 66 year old African American woman newly diagnosed with HIV presents for the first time at Clinic A. She approaches the receptionist’s desk and hands her the appointment slip. Read more...
|Case Study 41||
Angela is a 22 year old Chinese transgender male to female person. She seems nervous and does not make eye contact. English is not her first language. She is currently going through estrogen hormone therapy. Read more...
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