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A-Z List of Resources

An alphabetical listing of resources collected by the AETC-NMC.

Back to eLibary HomeThe following resources are available from the AETC NMC Electronic Library as well as repository locations of our collaborative partners. Materials are listed alphabetically.

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  • A handbook on best practices regarding HIV and AIDS for people with disabilities
    This handbook aims to increase awareness of disability and HIV, to share knowledge and to give examples of best practices. It also invites study of the impact of the AIDS epidemic on people with disabilities and seeks to incite a wider action to achieve universal access for people with disabilities to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.
    Source: PubMed February 2011
  • Healing Techniques of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2012
  • Health Care Providers' Reports of Perceived Stigma Associated with HIV and AIDS in Rural and Urban Communities
    Over 1,500 rural and urban providers in Alaska and New Mexico responded to our survey assessing their perceptions of stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. Findings indicated that providers perceive HIV/AIDS as highly stigmatized and stigmatized more than other physical and mental illnesses. Perceptions of HIV/AIDS stigma varied across community sizes, with highest levels in rural communities and lower levels in urban, small urban, and small rural communities.
    Source: JHSS 2010
  • Health care transition for youth living with HIV/AIDS
    This review discusses the unique transition challenges to consider for this population, including socioeconomic and health insurance status, the special role of the pediatric or adolescent provider as family, stigma and disclosure issues, cognitive development and mental health issues, medication adherence, and sexual, reproductive, and gender health concerns.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • Health Care under the ADA: A Vision or a Mirage?
    This study identified health care access barriers using recent studies documenting the health disparities experienced by people with disabilities. Some of these health care access barriers qualify as discrimination prohibited under the Americans with Disabilities Act. The broad challenge for the coming decade is to develop means to achieve effective communication and eliminate physical and programmatic barriers in more health care provider settings more consistently. The ADA can be a vigorous force in this effort as part of a multipronged strategy. Source: PubMed 2010
  • Health Equity Series: Responding to LGBT Health Disparities. Examines how LGBT individuals in Missouri and across the country experience poorer health outcomes than their heterosexual peers.
    Source: The Missouri Foundation for Health 2012
  • The Health HIV Pulse Points 2010: Multiculturalism and Cultural Competency Survey
    This survey reveals differing views between Hispanic/Latinos and Asian/Pacific Islanders with regards to the term multiculturalism
    Source: HHIV 2010
  • Health Literacy Measurement Tools
    Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. AHRQ-funded researchers have developed two tools to measure an aspect of health literacy—individuals' reading comprehension in a medical context. These tools can be used for research, clinical, or program planning purposes.
    Source: AHRQ 2009
  • The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding
    The Institute of Medicine released this consensus report to develop a more complete picture of the health status of people who are LGBT and to identify research gaps.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • Health Perceptions of African HIV-infected Patients and their Physicians.
    This study explored how patients from Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) infected with HIV and living in Switzerland, and their treating physicians perceived their health, whether these perceptions correlated with biological markers, and what organizational changes participants considered likely to improve quality of care. Patients and physicians did not agree in their evaluation of patients' health status. Patients did not perceive their health through biological markers, but linked their mental health with their socioeconomic context. Physicians underestimated patients' biological health and their evaluation of global health. This illustrates the importance of accessing patients' perspective and not relying solely on physicians' perception of the problem. Source: PubMed 2010
  • Health Programs for Immigrants
    Overview of the African Services project and its methods of providing culturally appropriate care to African Immigrants Source: African Services Committee, New York 2009
  • Healthcare experiences of limited english-proficient asian american patients: a cross-sectional mail survey. This survey evaluated the degree of health education and the quality of interpersonal care that occurs during patient visits, and their associations with patient satisfaction, in LEP Asian American patients.
    Source: PubMed 2009
  • Healthy People Webinar: Transgender Health (Parts 1 -10; video) 2012
  • Health Related Quality of Life Assessment questionnaire for children aged 5 to 11 years with HIV/AIDS: cross-cultural adaptation for the Portuguese language.
    The  study presents preliminary results from the cross-cultural adaptation of the Quality of Life Assessment Questionnaire, which measured health- related quality of life (HRQL) in Brazilian children aged between 5 and 11 with HIV/AIDS.
    Source: PubMed July 2011
  • Hispanic women's experiences with substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and risk for HIV
    This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • HIV/AIDS and Older Adults: Fact Versus Fiction
    This article talks about the many myths and misconceptions surround HIV and AIDS, particularly for people over 50 living with the disease. HIV and AIDS have long been subject to many myths and misconceptions, many of which concern older adults. Thanks to recent advancements in HIV/AIDS treatments, particularly highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART), many people living with HIV/AIDS are living long, healthy lives, transforming HIV into a chronic but manageable illness. Therefore, it is no surprise that research shows that adults age 50 and over comprise a significant—and growing—number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), as well as those newly diagnosed with HIV and AIDS each year. Source: NRC-LGBT 2011.
  • HIV among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)
    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent approximately 2% of the US population, yet are the population most severely affected by HIV and are the only risk group in which new HIV infections have been increasing steadily since the early 1990s
    Source: CDC 2010
  • HIV and Complementary and Alternative Medicine
    This article addresses the various complementary and alternative therapies that are available and how they may help relieve HIV symptoms, as well as side effects of medications.
    Source: Everyday Health. May 2009
  • HIV and Individuals with disability
    Individuals who live with a permanent physical, sensory (deafness, blindness), intellectual, or mental health disability have been almost entirely overlooked despite the fact that they are at equal or increased risk of exposure to all known risk factors for HIV. The article presents results from the World Bank/Yale Global Survey on HIV/AIDS and Disability. The survey assessed the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on global populations.
    Source: PubMed April 2003
  • HIV Infection in Refugees: A Case-control Analysis of Refugees in Rhode Island.
    The number of HIV-infected refugees entering the USA is increasing. There is little data describing the HIV-infected refugee population and the challenges encountered when caring for them. This article discusses clinicians caring for West African HIV-infected refugees should be knowledgeable about likely co-morbidities and the impact of cultural differences on HIV care. Further studies are needed to develop culturally competent HIV treatment, education, and prevention programs for refugees who are beginning a new life in the USA. Source: PubMed March 2009
  • HIV and Pregnancy
    These fact sheets on HIV and pregnancy are intended especially for HIV-infected women who are pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant.
    Source: AIDSINFO 2010
  • HIV and Young American Indian/Alaska Native Women
    Social, economic, and cultural barriers limit the ability of many American Indians/Alaska Native (AI/AN) young women to receive accurate and adequate information on preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI)s. Young Native women need culturally competent, affordable services which build on their assets. Additionally, there is a striking lack of research on cultural issues that influence the reproductive and sexual health of American Indians/Alaska Natives, less on AI/AN adolescents, and even less on young American Indian women. The article presents information about risks, assets and needs.
    Source: PubMed 2012
  • HIV Care in Correctional Settings
    Caring for HIV-infected patients who are incarcerated is a complex and challenging task. For many of these patients, the prison health service provides their first opportunity for access to consistent health care. This chapter discusses some of the issues relevant to the HIV-infected population in correctional settings
    Source: HRSA 2011
  • HIV Care in the Correctional Setting
    This article outlines the delivery of health care in jails and prisons in particular the management of HIV where there are significant disparities between jails and prisons, and between local, city, state, and federal systems
    Source: TB 2009
  • HIV Cultural Competency (2007)
    National guidelines for culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare services in HIV for ethnic and gender minority communities.
  • HIV in Communities of Color: The Compendium of Culturally Compentent Promising Practices
    Date: 2009
    Source: National Minority AETC at Howard University College of Medicine
  • HIV In Communities of Color: The Compendium of Culturally Competent Promising Practices: The Role of Traditional Healing in HIV Clinical Management
    Date: 2011
    Source: AIDS Education and Training Center National Multicultural Center (AETC-NMC) at Howard University College of Medicine
  • HIV in Prisons, 2007-08 BJS 2009-2010
    This report provides the number of state and federal prisoners who were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or had confirmed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at year end 2007 and 2008, categorized by gender, type of infection, and HIV infection by region and state
    Source: BJS 2010
  • HIV in Prisons and Jails Fact Sheet 615
    Medical care in a prison or jail depends on the local facility. In general, prisoners do not receive health care that meets public health standards.
    Source: AIDS InfoNet 2011
  • HIV Infection among Transgender People
    Transgender communities in the United States are among the groups at highest risk for HIV infection. Transgender people are gender identity minorities.   The term gender identity refers to a person’s basic sense of self, of identifying as male, female, or some other gender
    (e.g., transgender, bigender, intersex).
    Source: CDC 2011
  • HIV infection in refugees: a case-control analysis of refugees in Rhode Island
    This is a retrospective case-control analysis of HIV-infected refugees in order to characterize their co-morbidities, baseline HIV characteristics, and longitudinal care compared to HIV-infected non-refugees. The refugee population studied was largely from West Africa. Refugees were more likely than non-refugees to have heterosexual risk for HIV infection, latent tuberculosis infection, and active hepatitis B. Refugees were less likely than non-refugees to have a history of substance use, start antiretrovirals, and be enrolled in a clinical study. The baseline CD4 counts and HIV plasma viral loads were similar between the two groups. Clinicians caring for West African HIV-infected refugees should be knowledgeable about likely co-morbidities and the impact of cultural differences on HIV care.
    PubMed Mar 2009
  • HIV Prevalence Rates Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Southern United States: Population-Based Estimates by Race/Ethnicity
    This is an article on estimated population-based HIV prevalence rates among MSM in the 17 southern states by race/ethnicity. Source: PubMed 2010
  • HIV-Related Research in Correctional Population: Now is the Time
    The overlapping epidemics of incarceration and HIV present a need for academic medical centers to collaborate with the criminal justice system to improve the health of incarcerated populations.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • HIV screening and care for immigration detainees
    The detention of immigrants in the United States is a rapidly expanding endeavor with serious health consequences for the detainees. This detainee population represents non-criminal immigrants who are detained because of a visa violation or other immigration issue but who are not charged with any crime and do not enter the criminal justice system. HIV-positive detainees are especially vulnerable to lapses in proper medical care. Press reports have highlighted deaths and adverse medical outcomes among HIV-positive detainees.
    Source: PubMed 2009
  • HIV testing among sexually experienced Asian and Pacific Islander young women association with routine gynecologic.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of sexually experienced Asian and Pacific Islander (API) women tested for HIV during the past 12 months, and to investigate the extent to which routine gynecologic care (RGC) increases HIV testing among API women.
    Source: PubMed July-August 2009
  • HIV Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Critical
    Knowledge and Intervention Gaps
    This paper describes four major challenges to successful management of HIV in the criminal justice system: relapse to substance use, homelessness, mental illness, and loss of medical and social benefits.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives living in Montana: a descriptive study
    This study examines the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana, barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test.
    Source: PubMed 2011
  • HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders. 2008.
    This fact sheet views the data which indicates that in recent years, the number of AIDS diagnoses among Asians and Pacific Islanders has increased steadily.
  • HIV/AIDS among Hispanic/Latinos
    This Virgina Department of Health report shows that Virginia’s Hispanic/Latino population grew 59% between 2000 and 2008, based on US Census population estimates, and that one in 433 Hispanics/Latinos in Virginia are known to be living with HIV infection
    Source VDH 2009
  • HIV/AIDS and Asian and Pacific Islander Women
    Date: 1997
    Source: The Gender politics of HIV/AIDS in Women: Perspectives on the Pandemic in the United States
  • HIV/AIDS Behind Bars: An Avenue for Culturally Sensitive Interventions 2004
    The prevalence of HIV infection and the incidence of AIDS are higher among prison inmates compared to the general population
  • HIV/AIDS and children in the English speaking Caribbean
    This groundbreaking book provides an overview and informed discussion of HIV/AIDS as it affects children and adolescents in Antigua, Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. With contributions from noted HIV/AIDS experts in the region, it examines the biopsychosocial, environmental, spiritual, and policy issues that impact HIV/AIDS prevention/service delivery issues for Caribbean youth.
    Source: PubMed 2012
  • HIV/AIDS Farmworkers National Center for Farmworkers Health, Inc.
    This Fact Sheet discusses the migrant lifestyle, often characterized by constant mobility, geographic isolation, separation from family, lack of health education, and varying cultural attitudes and beliefs about sex safe sex practices further escalates these risks.
    Source: National Center for Farm Worker Health, Inc.
  • HIV/AIDS interventions in an aging U.S. population
    HIV prevention for people over 50 is an important health concern, especially as the U.S. population grows older. This article reviews the current interventions and proposes possible HIV/AIDS prevention effort for older adults.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • HIV/AIDS Prevention Education: Developing Cultural Competent Programs for African Americans
    The purpose of this exploratory theory-based article is to discuss the extent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the African American community, variables that contribute to HIV/AIDS among African Americans, and culturally relevant program designs and instructional strategies that support African Americans' prevention needs and demonstrate respect for their cultural and family values.
    Source: PubMed 2012
  • HIV/AIDS prevention in New York City: identifying sociocultural needs of the community
    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative study that sought to identify the unique sociocultural needs of NYC residents who seek HIV/AIDS care.
    Source: PubMed 2010
  • HIV/AIDS-related institutional mistrust among multiethnic men who have sex with men: Effects on HIV testing and risk behaviors
    This study investigates relationships between institutional mistrust (systematic discrimination, organizational suspicion, and conspiracy beliefs), HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing in a multiethnic sample of men who have sex with men (MSM), and to test whether perceived susceptibility to HIV mediates these relationships for White and ethnic minority MSM.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • Hmong - Culture Matters
  • Hospitals and Effective Communications
  • How do you know if you are not a Covered Entity?
  • How the ACA Changes Pathways to Insurance Coverage for People with HIV
    This informative article spells out how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) impacts insurance coverage for people living with HIV, and includes information prior to ACA (before 2010), during the transition period (2010-2014) and full implementation of ACA (2014 and beyond). Follow the link above to read the full report.
    Source: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2012
  • How Effective Healthcare Communication Contributes to Health Equity  2012
    This video addresses provider health literacy, contribute to improving the quality of services for culturally and linguistically diverse populations as well as people with limited health literacy skills
  • How to Gather Data On Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Clinical Settings
    This brief discusses two methods for gathering sexual orientation and gender identity from patients, by asking questions on the patient registration (intake) form, and by requiring that providers gather this information directly from patients during medical visits, recording responses in the electronic medical record.
    Source: The Fenway Institute 2012




  • Keeping Our Hearts from Touching the Ground: HIV/AIDS in American Indian and Alaska Native Women
    HIV/AIDS is a critical and growing challenge to American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women's health. Conceptually guided by the Indigenist Stress-Coping Model, this paper explores the historical and contemporary factors implicated in the HIV epidemic among AIAN women and the co-occurring epidemics of sexual violence and substance abuse.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices regarding HIV/AIDS Among Disabled Youth in Maputo (Mozambique)].
    This study deals with knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS amongst disabled youth (motor disabilities, visually or hearing impaired) aged 15 to 29 years in Maputo (Mozambique) where the prevalence rate of HIV is 20.7%. The study analyzed reasons for these differences and showed that there is a need to improve access to HIV/AIDS information, counseling and screening for young people with disabilities. A series of recommendations have been proposed based on our results. Source: PubMed 2010




  • National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS)
    Resource outlining the National HIV/AIDS strategy as coordinated by the White House Office of National AIDS Policy.
  • National HIV/AIDS Strategy Operational Plan 2011
    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy Operational Plan was designed to promote a coordinated effort between Federal agencies, community organizations, and other health care settings to respond to the domestic HIV epidemic. The three primary goals of the strategy include:  Reducing the n umber of Veterans who become infected with HIV; Increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for Veterans living with HIV; and reducing HIV-related health disparities. 2011
  • National Origin Discrimination
  • National Standards on Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS)
    The CLAS standards are primarily directed at health care organizations. Individual providers are also encouraged to use the standards to make their practices more culturally and linguistically accessible. Source: Office of Minority Health 2007
  • National Women & Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is March 10.
    Women have been affected by HIV/AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic, an impact that has grown over time. In partnership with Community Education Group, Greater Than AIDS is mobilizing women and girls to increase knowledge about HIV/AIDS and confront the stigma surrounding the disease.
  • Native American/Alaska Native Traditional Healing
    In this fact sheet the term "Native American" is meant to include Native Americans and Alaska Natives. These traditions are not based on western science. Instead, they come from the tribe's beliefs about how individuals fit in the web of life. This web includes the tribe, all humanity, the earth, and the universe. Many healing traditions focus on harmony.
    Source: Fact Sheet AIDS Info 2010
  • Non-conventional practices and immune functioning among individuals receiving conventional care for HIV
    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among non-conventional practices, adherence and immune functioning in individuals with HIV.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • Not One More: Fighting AIDS in Communities of Color
    This document makes recommendations to improve HIV/AIDS Services to American Indians, Native Americans, Alaskan Natives and Native Hawaiians. Source: NMAC 2009


  • Older and Wiser: Many Faces of HIV - Part 1
    This video is about 50 and over patients with HIV
  • Older and Wiser: Many Faces of HIV - Part 2
    This video is about 50 and over patients with HIV
  • Older Latina Women and HIV/AIDS: An Examination of Sexuality and Culture as They Relate to Risk and Protective Factors.
    Older Latina women are one of the least studied American demographic groups with regard to social, health, or sexual behavior. Currently, older Latina women are one of the fastest growing groups of new AIDS cases. The article addresses risk and protective factors related to gender roles, traditional Latino family values, religion, socioeconomic factors, health, and health care, with special attention to the triple jeopardy faced by this population by virtue of being female, seniors, and minorities. The article concludes with recommendations for the development of culturally competent practices with older Latinas and the development of a research agenda to better understand their risk-related and health-seeking behavior. Source: PubMed 2009
  • Once-daily antiretroviral therapy among treatment-experienced Muslim patients fasting for the month of Ramadan
    This study evaluates once-daily antiretroviral therapy compared to twice daily ART among Nigerian Muslims patients fasting for the month of Ramadan.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • Overcoming health literacy barriers: a model for action
    A large influx of Indonesian immigrants seeking asylum from racial and religious persecution alerted providers in a New Hampshire community to the need for specific cultural knowledge about this ethnic group, in order to provide effective care. The providers sought to develop health education programs that provided knowledge and tools to overcome misunderstandings between providers and clients. The goal was to improve communication, improve health literacy, and prevent health disparities. A framework to understand factors that affect health literacy for local Indonesian asylum seekers guided community health education. Written educational materials for programs informed providers about health literacy barriers for this population. Community outreach engaged local pastors and interpreters as cultural brokers who collaborated with nurses to develop and implement culturally sensitive programs.
    PubMed  2011


  • Partner communication and HIV testing among US Chinese college students
    The objectives of this study were to explore the role of partner communication and relationship status on HIV testing among Chinese/Chinese American college students in northern California.
    Source: PubMed May-June 2010
  • Partnering with community agencies to provide nursing students with cultural awareness experiences and refugee health promotion access
    Refugees' cultural beliefs, communication barriers, and low health literacy may lead to health disparities. This article describes a teaching-learning strategy emphasizing the community partnership between a baccalaureate school of nursing, an immigrant-refugee program, and a community literacy program in a rural state. Senior community health nursing students partnered with an immigrant-refugee program and a community literacy program to provide health promotion and prevention services to recently immigrated Hmong and Russian refugees. The group identified refugees’ priority health needs. Based on the needs assessment, nursing students designed and implemented culturally appropriate health promotion and prevention education modules. Students collaborated with community agencies and businesses to increase access to health resources for these vulnerable populations. Students increased their cultural awareness and refugees increased their understanding of U.S. health care, and experienced increased care access.
    Source: PubMed 2009
  • Patient-centered Care for Muslim Women: Provider and Patient Perspectives.
    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to address the gap in existing literature regarding provider perspectives about provision of high-quality, culturally appropriate, patient-centered care to Muslim women in the United States and (2) to explore congruence between provider and patient perceptions regarding barriers to and recommendations for providing such care.  The findings of this study can guide future research aimed at ensuring high-quality, culturally appropriate, patient-centered healthcare for Muslim women in the United States and other western countries. Source: PubMed 2011
  • Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care: Model testing and refinement
    This article presents the results of an empirical test of a literature-based Patient-Centered Culturally Sensitive Health Care Model. The model was developed to explain and improve health care for ethnically diverse patients seen in community-based primary care clinics.
    Source: PubMed May 2011
  • A Patient-Centered Guide to Implementing Language Access Services in Healthcare Organizations
    This guide is intended to help healthcare organizations implement effective language access services to meet the needs of their limited-English-proficient patients, and increase their access to health care. Source: Office of Minority Health 2010
  • Perceptions of HIV/AIDS by deaf gay men
    Deaf gay men represent a subpopulation of the gay male community at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS due to numerous barriers including language, stigma, and inequitable access to health services. Study participants  described living at the intersection of multiple communities--the deaf, gay, and hearing--each characterized by unique communication styles, cultural expectations, and a propensity to marginalize outsiders. Health care providers were perceived as lacking compassion and largely ignorant to the needs of deaf persons, in general, and deaf gay men, in particular. Printed HIV materials were considered culturally inappropriate, incomprehensible, and ineffective. These findings suggest an extraordinary risk for adverse mental and physical health outcomes if care is not appropriately designed for this vulnerable population.
    Source: PubMed July-August 2004
  • Persistence of racial differences in attitudes toward homosexuality in the United States
    Stigma may mediate some of the observed disparity in HIV infection rates between black and white men who have sex with men.
    Source: Pubmed 2010
  • Physicians' attitude towards treating refugee patients
    The refugee patient's complex problems represent a challenge for primary and secondary health care. Language problems and cultural differences may cause difficulties in understanding symptoms and ailments. The authors conducted this study to assess how physicians relate to and perceive their competence for treating this patient group. The study sample was Norwegian physicians, who answered survey questions to self-report on issues related to cultural competence and challenges in providing care. Large percentages of respondents reported difficulties in getting expert advice and with referring patients to psychiatric care when it was needed.
    PubMed Aug 2009
  • Position Statement on Health Care Access for Deaf Patients
    This paper discusses that healthcare is routinely inaccessible to deaf people due to communication and linguistic barriers. The evidence is compelling that deaf individuals have insufficient access to health care. This results primarily from communication barriers in the health care system. Access in the form of effective communication must be created and consistently provided to create an optimal health care system.  Providers should identify and document the needs of their patients and provide a range of effective communication options to ensure that quality services are delivered.  At the very minimum, existing federal laws under Section 504 and the ADA require health care providers to ensure that such effective communication is achieved. Source: NAD 2008
  • Primary Care Provider Cultural Competence and Racial Disparities in HIV Care and Outcomes. 
    Provider cultural competence was associated with the quality and equity of HIV care. These findings suggest that enhancing provider cultural competence may reduce racial disparities in healthcare quality and outcomes.  Source: PubMed 2013
  • Primary Care of Veterans with HIV – Manual. 2009
  • Principles for Culturally Competent Health Care for Native Americans
    This article discusses how important it is to support existing Native American practices related to healing and prevention.
    Source: MSH
  • Problem Posing and Cultural Tailoring: Developing an HIV/AIDS Health Literacy Toolkit with the African American community. 
    The rate of HIV infection among African Americans is disproportionately higher than for other racial groups in the United States. This article suggests that  low level of health literacy (HL) is an underlying factor to explain racial disparities in the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS. The present research describes a community and university project to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit in the African American community to address this service delivery issue. Paulo Freire's pedagogical philosophy and problem-posing methodology served as the guiding framework throughout the development process of the toolkit.  The discussion in the article highlights how Freire's pedagogical philosophy and methodology enhances the development of culturally tailored health information intervention tool.  Source: PubMed 2011
  • Promoting Cultural Diversity and Cultural and Linguistic Competency: Self-Assessment Checklist for Personnel Providing Services and Supports to LGBTQ Youth and Their Families
    The checklist is included in a chapter entitled "Conducting Cultural and Linguistic Competence Self-Assessment" (Goode, T. & Fisher, S.), in Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Youth who are LGBTQ and their Families, Sylvia Fisher, Gary Blau & Jeffrey Poirier, editors, Brookes Publishing. It is anticipated that the book will be published in late spring/early summer.
    Source: National Center for Cultural Competence, 2012
  • The promulgation of the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in Health Care
    Established in 2001, these standards provided a framework for the implementation of services and organizational structures to meet the needs of diverse patient populations.
  • Psychological and cultural correlates of depression among Hispanic men with HIV infection: a pilot study
    The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the relationships between depression and other psychosocial factors (self-esteem, Hispanic stress, substance abuse and violence) and cultural factors (familism and Hispanic stress) among a sample of Hispanic men with HIV infection.
    Source: PubMed February 2012
  • Public health responses to the HIV epidemic among black men who have sex with men: A qualitative study of US health departments and communities
    In the United States, Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Thus, there is a need to understand the challenges facing health departments and community-based organizations responding to the HIV epidemic among this population
    Source: Pubmed 2009
  • Public Health Responses to the HIV Epidemic Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Qualitative Study of US Health Departments and Communities AJPH 2009
    This articles discusses Black men, in the United States, who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Thus, there is a need to understand the challenges facing health departments and community-based organizations responding to the HIV epidemic among this population. We interviewed 71 AIDS program directors, health department staff, and leaders of community-based organizations in 9 states and the District of Columbia. Participants identified psychosocial factors, a lack of capacity-building efforts, and stigma as barriers to HIV prevention responses targeting Black MSM.
  • Public Law 106-525, the Minority Health and Health and Health Disparities Research Act
    In 2000, this law was enacted which established the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities within the National Institutes of Health.



  • Racial/Ethnic Disparities among Children with Diagnoses of Perinatal HIV Infection---34 States, 2004-2007
    This report characterizes the most recent trends in diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection by race andethnicity, using national HIV surveillance data for the period 2004-2007 from 34 states.
    Source: PubMed 2010
  • Recently Released with HIV/AIDS: Primary Care Treatment Needs and Experiences
    The research objectives of this study are to describe the re-entry experiences of people recently released from jail who were living with HIV/AIDS, and to identify factors that influence their access to primary care and adherence to a treatment regimen.
    Source: PubMed 2007
  • Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge
    In an effort to understand perspectives about African American level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education and engagement in research, this study explores factors that impact their willingness to participate.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • Refugee Health Providers Manual
    This manual is a resource for health care and social service providers who serve refugees. It describes in detail the process of refugee resettlement, expectations for the refugee health screening, and cultural profiles describing some of the refugee groups being resettled in Rhode Island.
    OMH-RIHD May 2007
  • Refugee resettlement to the United States: recommendations for a new approach
    This article compares outcomes of resettlement strategies for two Laotian immigrant populations: Hmong and Thai Dam. Authors discuss the prevalence of psychosocial challenges faced by many Hmong immigrants to the United States, including difficulties with acculturation, welfare dependency, psychiatric disorder, mistrust, malignant youth gangs, and violence. These issues are much less prevalence among members of the Thai Dam tribal group. Strategies used for resettlement of these two groups differed greatly. Based on these differences, the author recommends a refugee resettlement strategy aimed at improved mental health and optimal acculturation for future refugee groups.
    PubMed  Aug, 2011
  • Regulations and Nondiscrimination Laws Enforced by OCR That May Apply to Providers
  • The Relation between Deaf Patients and the Doctor. 
    This study discusses that non-verbal communication is important when caring for deaf patients, fostering excellence in health care. When deaf patients and physicians meet, they need to overcome communication barriers that may hinder the necessary bond in healthcare and the care that is provided; this may also affect the diagnosis and treatment. It is clear that public institutions should create programs for training healthcare professionals in the appropriate care of deaf patients. Source: PubMed 2009
  • Relationship between complementary/alternative treatment use and illicit drug use among a cohort of women with, or at risk for, HIV infection
    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and illegal substance use in a cohort of women with HIV or at risk for HIV disease.
    Source: Pubmed 2010
  • Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic
    This paper presents a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided.
    Source: Pubmed 2011
  • Religious and Cultural Perceptions about HIV/AIDS among Muslims
    Muslims have strong belief systems relating to food, dress and chastity, but one of the strongest values of this group relates to sexuality. Since sexual orientation has implications for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, the purpose of this study is to explore the views and perceptions about HIV/AIDS among Muslims in a southern city in the United States.
    Source: Pubmed 2010
  • Religious values and healthcare accommodations: voices from the American Muslim community. PubMed 2012 
    The authors conducte 13 focus groups in Michigan mosques to gather qualitative data on culturally competence clinical care for Muslim Americans. Responses yielded three key recommendations for healthcare accommodations: gender-concordant care, halal food, and neutral prayer space. The authors state that these accommodations will facilitate trusting and respectful patient-provider relationships and improve patients’ healthcare experiences.
  • The R.E.S.P.E.C.T Model of Cross–Cultural Communication
    Date: 1998
    Source: Welch, M.
  • Risk perception and beliefs regarding HIV infection among Ethiopian immigrants
    In Ethiopia, approximately 7.5% of the urban population is HIV-positive. Nationally, 1.5 million people are living with HIV. Between 1990 and 2000, immigration into the United States by African-born immigrants increased by 130%.  Individuals from Ethiopia comprise a significant portion of this immigrant population. Although there is a rich literature addressing the beliefs regarding HIV and risk perception among some immigrant populations in the United States, few studies target Ethiopian-born residents. Thus, a survey-based study addressing demographics, acculturation, awareness, beliefs and risk perception, attitudes toward susceptibility for infection, and risk behaviors targeted Ethiopian-born residents of San Diego, California.
    Source: PubMed October 2009
  • Role of Mobile Health in the Care of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse US Populations
    Emerging trends in the health-related use of cell phones include the proliferation of mobile health applications for the care and monitoring of patients with chronic diseases and the rise in cell phone usage by Latinos and African Americans in the United States. This article reviews public policy in four areas with the goal of improving the care of patients belonging to culturally and linguistically diverse populations.
    Source: AHiMA 2011
  • Role-reversal Exercise with Deaf Strong Hospital to Teach Communication Competency and Cultural Awareness. 
    This paper discusses a role-reversal exercise to increase first-year pharmacy students' awareness of communication barriers in the health care setting, especially for deaf and hard-of-hearing patients. Source: PubMed 2011








  • YOUR Blessed Health: an HIV-prevention program bridging faith and public health communities.
    African American faith-based institutions are not necessarily equipped to balance their moral and spiritual missions and interpretation of religious doctrine with complex health issues such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). YOUR Blessed Health (YBH) is a faith-based, six-month pilot project designed to increase the capacity of faith-based institutions and faith leaders to communicate about and address HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in 11- to 19-year-old African Americans. In addition to increasing the knowledge and skills of young people, the intervention seeks to change churches' norms to provide more open settings where young people can talk with faith leaders about sex, relationships, STIs, and HIV/AIDS. YBH expands the roles of adult faith leaders, particularly pastors' spouses, to include health education as they implement the intervention in their congregations and communities. The intervention includes a flexible menu of activities for faith leaders to select from according to their institutional beliefs, doctrines, and culture.
    Source: PubMed January 2011



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