Review and Further Resources

This curriculum has examined the different strands that make up a complex knot that has limited HIV-positive African Americans with mental health problems—and their communities—from receiving the full benefit of contemporary mental healthcare and HIV treatment services. The curriculum has also suggested some of the tools that are currently available and others that need to be developed to untangle the knot—and empower HIV-positive African Americans to live more productive, fulfilling lives.

Further Resources

In addition to the references cited throughout this curriculum, the following articles, books, and websites can provide further information about the issues discussed in each of the modules:

Black Mental Health Alliance for Education and Consultation.

Black Psychiatrists of America.

Farhat F, Daftary MN, Downer GA, Momin F. Managing mentally and physically challenged HIV patients. J Natl Med Assoc. 2009;101:1283-1286.

Head J. Standing in the Shadows: Understanding and Overcoming Depression in Black Men. New York, New York; Crown Archetype; 2004.

Healthy Minds, the American Psychiatric Association’s patient and consumer information site:

Herrera JM, Lawson WB, Sramek JJ, eds. Cross Cultural Psychiatry. Chichester, England; Wiley-Blackwell; 1999.

King JL. On the Down Low: A Journey into the Lives of 'Straight' Black Men Who Sleep with Men. New York, New York; Three Rivers Press; 2005.

Lawson WB. Anxiety disorders in African Americans and other ethnic minorities. In Stress-induced and Fear Circuitry Disorders: Advancing the Research Agenda for DSM-V, Andrews G, Charney DS, Sirovatka PJ, Regier DA. Arlington, Virginia; American Psychiatric Publishing; 2009.

Lawson WB, Hutchinson J, Reynolds D. HIV/AIDS among African Americans. In: Psychiatric Aspects of HIV/AIDS. Fernandez F, Ruiz P, eds. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.

National Alliance on Mental Illness.

Ng CH, Lin KM, Singh BS, Chiu EYK, eds. Ethno-psychopharmacology: Advances in Current Practice. Cambridge, United Kingdon; Cambridge University Press; 2008.

Ruiz P, Primm A, eds. Disparities in Psychiatric Care: Clinical and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Baltimore, Maryland; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.

Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR, eds. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC; National Academies Press; 2003.

Sullivan G, Koegel P, Kanouse DE, et al. HIV and people with serious mental illness: the public sector's role in reducing HIV risk and improving care. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:648-652.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV information.

US National Institute of Mental Health.

US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

Williams TM. Black Pain: It Just Looks Like We’re Not Hurting. New York, New York; Scribner; 2009.




Howard University College of Medicine AIDS Education and Training Center - National Multicultural Center